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Research & Citations

The debates on homework are often a source of tension and can be fractious. Research provides some common ground for considering best practices. It is important to remember that even good research has limitations. However, beginning with research provides us with quantitative and qualitative data and recommendations to best inform our guidelines. Below are some examples of such research.

  • Cooper, H., Civey Robinson, J., Patall, E.A. (2006). Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Research 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76, 1–62.

  • Goetz, T., Ulrike, E. N., Martiny, S. E., Hall, N. C., Pekrun, R., Dettmers, S., & Trautwein, U. (2012). Students’ emotions during homework: Structures, self-concept antecedents, and achievement outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 225-234

  • Elliot, A. J., Chirkov, V.I., Kim, Y., & Sheldon, K.M. (2001). A cross-cultural analysis of avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals. Psychological Science 12, 505-510.

  • Kohn, A. (2006). The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

  • Solomon,Y., Warin, J., Lewis, C. (2002). Helping with Homework. Homework as a Site of Tension for Parents and Teenagers. British Educational Research Journal 28(4), 603-622.

  • Suldo, S.M., Shaunessy, E,. Hardesty, R. (2008). Relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in high-achieving high school students. doi: 10.1002/pits.20300

  • Van Voorhis, F.l. (2003) Interactive Homework in Middle School: Effects on Family Involvement and Science Achievement The Journal of Educational Research, 96(6) 323-338. Retrieved from